HIV infection


Attention danger: modes of transmission and ways of HIV infection

Attention danger: modes of transmission and ways of HIV infection
In its relation to HIV people at-risk for the disease, divided into two groups. Some, quite apart from the HIV problem, ignore the danger, and happily indulge in the pleasures of life. Others lost in the flow of information and confusing reality and fiction, we are willing to contact with the outside world only through a condom or latex gloves. Just say – and those are wrong, and others. The problem of HIV infection to date been studied well enough to know exactly what the situation is the risk of infection is real and how much – is extremely unlikely. How is HIV transmitted, in what situations the risk of infection is greatest when you need special care – let’s see.

In the body, an HIV-infected human virus, in an amount sufficient for the infection is in the blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk. Insufficient for contracting the amount of virus found in sweat, saliva, urine and faeces, but these secretions contact with open wounds can create the danger of infection. According to current data it is safe to talk about three ways of HIV transmission: sexual, parenteral (through blood and organs) and vertical (mother to child).

Sexual transmission of HIV

A prerequisite for the “success” of HIV infection through sexual contact is the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the semen or vaginal secretions of one partner. Infection occurs when any kind of sex: vaginal, anal or oral. Rightly believe that anal sex is more dangerous than vaginal due to the high risk of trauma rectal mucosa, which facilitates penetration of the virus in the blood. This route of infection is relevant for both heterosexual and homosexual contacts.

The risk of infection through oral contact due to frequent presence on the oral mucosa microtrauma through which the virus from sperm (vaginal secretions) HIV-infected person enters the body of a healthy partner. It is clear that the failure by swallowing infected semen does not reduce risk of HIV infection. Also, the actual transmission of the virus through oral sex through saliva: although the level of viral particles in saliva significantly lower than in the semen or vaginal secretions, trauma of the penis or the female genitals through oral contact allows direct contact of infected saliva and blood and increases the risk of infection.

Extremely dangerous sex with an HIV-infected woman during menstruation – the level of virus in the menstrual blood is much higher than its concentration in vaginal secretions.

Contact infected vaginal secretions, menstrual blood or sperm with intact skin of a healthy person is not dangerous, as the skin is an insurmountable barrier to the immunodeficiency virus. But if there are sores on the skin, ssadinki, cracks and other damage – transmission of the virus is quite real. It is also dangerous to hit the sperm or vaginal secretions in the eyes and other mucous membranes.

The risk of infection for women is increased in the presence of cervical erosion, inflammation of the vagina, cervix, vaginal mucosa microtrauma. In men, the probability of infection increases inflammation of the genital organs.

From the perspective of virology, any unprotected sex with a partner whose HIV status is not known for sure, should be a cause for testing for HIV (HIV antibodies) at 3 and 6 months, counting from the date of possible infection.

Unfortunately, the reality is that trust is not recommended on the floor, even the most beloved person in respect of sexually transmitted infections.

Note: the use of lubricants, contraceptives and antiseptic candles, douching antiseptic solutions (miramistin, potassium permanganate solution, soda, citric acid, etc.) does not kill the virus and immune deficiency does not prevent infection after exposure to HIV-infected partner.

There is a risk of HIV infection in the use of assisted reproductive technologies – namely women in fertilization with donor sperm. When using canned sperm risk is lower because the sperm donors are tested for HIV at the time of delivery of sperm, and again after 6 months, and only after that the semen is considered suitable for use. When using native (fresh, unpreserved) sperm higher risk of infection because HIV checked only at the time of taking sperm donor may be in the period of seroconversion (antibody to HIV in the blood yet, but biological fluid already potentially infectious).